CANDIDAL BALANITIS. DEFINITION. Balanitis refers to inflammation of the glans . The most common cause of balanitis is Candida albicans. In common usage, “balanitis” and “balanoposthitis” are interchangeable, although balanoposthitis occurs only in uncircumcised males. For the. Zoon balanitis (ZB) is one of the benign nonvenereal dermatoses, which presents as a solitary, persistent erythematous plaque usually on the glans penis.

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Epidemiology There is a scarcity of published data regarding the incidence and prevalence of ZB. Reflectance confocal microscopy [ 25 ]. This article provides an overview of the epidemiology, clinical presentation, histopathological features, and diagnostic criteria and diagnostic methods of ZB.

Starritt E, Lee S. ZB is an entity of utmost importance both for the patients due to their concern regarding its prognosis and its management can be really challenging for the dermato-venereologists.

Zoon balanitis: A comprehensive review

YAG laser – Few studies have reported Er: Additional features such as subepidermal clefts, necrotic keratinocytes, and lozenge keratinocytes i. It is important to exclude other causes of similar symptoms such as penile cancer.

Other association Some authors have found an association between ZB and erythroplasia of Queyrat; while others believe that ZB can precede carcinoma of the penis, supposing that the carcinogenic changes may arise in the chronically inflamed mucosa of ZB. Mahajan BB, Mehta V. Patients should be instructed to retract the foreskin regularly and perform gentle cleansing of entire glans, preputial sac, and foreskin.


Plasma cell orificial mucositis.

A clinicopathologic study of 45 cases. Differentiation between balanitis and carcinoma in situ using reflectance confocal microscopy.

Fusidic acid cream in the treatment of plasma cell balanitis. It is usually asymptomatic and patient only presents with change in appearance of the genitalia.

Balanitis – Wikipedia

Plasma cell balanitis of Zoon: Although it is described as benign in nature, its association with premalignant conditions such as erythroplasia of Queyrat really puts the clinician in a great dilemma. Histopathological examination ZB has very distinct histopathological changes affecting both epidermis and dermis. The exact mechanism of action of TCIs in these conditions is not known.

Furthermore, pimecrolimus leads to inhibition of histamine release by mast cells, which may result in improvement of the bwlanopostitis. Therapeutic candidiaskca of topical calcineurin inhibitors in plasma cell balanitis: In addition to this, it is rather very important to differentiate this lesion from its clinical equivocal lesions such as erythroplasia of Queyrat, infective and other inflammatory penile dermatoses, which has been discussed in this review.

National Center for Biotechnology InformationU. Topical application of the immunosuppressant tacrolimus accelerates carcinogenesis in mouse skin.

Non-venereal diseases of male genitalia. This is followed by epidermal atrophy, at times erosions and spongiosis. Report of three cases. YAG laser produces relatively pure ablation with minimal thermal damage. According to the European balanopostktis for management of balanoposthitis, the definitive treatment of ZB is:.


Pareiitis und balanitis plasmacellularis.

Inflammation of the glans penis and the preputial mucosa of a circumcised penis. Clinicopathologic study of cases and treatment modalities. However, sometimes, it might be accompanied with symptoms such as pruritus, dysuria, pain, candiidasica burning sensation. ZB is an entity of utmost importance both for the patients due to their concern regarding its prognosis and for the demato-venereologists due to its management being really challenging.

Indian J Sex Transm Dis.

In addition, other possible causes of ZB that have been described in the literature include chronic infection with Mycobacterium smegmatis and human papillomaviruses HPV. It is less common among people who are circumcised as in many cases the foreskin contributes to the disease. The treatment of Zoon’s balanitis with the carbon dioxide laser.

Zoon balanitis: A comprehensive review

Balanitis is uncommon in circumcised men and in many cases preputial dysfunction is a causal or contributing factor. The exact follow-up regime for ZB after treatment is still unclear. Balanitis is inflammation of the glans penis.